# Measurement Evaluation by J. Mandel, L. F. Nanni

By J. Mandel, L. F. Nanni

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45 are only added X2, measurements Xh independent Xa, . . 42 involving the element in question and the other elements. 43 cou\d be used to evaluate the error varivariable Thus, in the case of three other elements and Xa, we would have: dependent ance for the element in question by considering it as the Xl' = 100 - and Xa are independent. X2, where the errors of + xa X2 (Xl + X2, Hence: Var(y) = Var(xI ) + Var(x2 ) + Var(xa since the constant , 100 , has zero-variance. Products and ratios. For products and ratios, the law of propagation of errors states that the squares of the coefficients of variation are additive.

Straight line fitting of The fitting of straight lines to experimental data is a subject great im- portance , particularly in analytical laboratories. Many analytical and clinical methods make extensive use of linear calibration curves for the purpose converting a measured quantity, such as an optical absorbance or a ratio peaks-heights on a mass-spectrometer scan , into a concentration value for an unknown constituent. Calibration curves are established by subjecting known concentrations to the measuring process and fitting lines the measurebe the known concentration ment (e.

347 , and ent , they will l1 Ch. 6 Grant , for further discussions). that conditions within show up between When tests on patient samples are performed at regular intervals using standard laboratory equipment, the subgroup becomes automatically de- fined, since control samples are, or should be , included in each run. Otherwise, tests on control samples should be run at regular intervals during the day in order to detect possible changes in environmental conditions, reagents , calibrations , technicians, etc.