Biotechnology of Microbial Exopolysaccharides by Ian W. Sutherland

By Ian W. Sutherland

This quantity presents a radical account of the constitution and synthesis of microbial exopolysaccharides and in their frequent software throughout a vast variety of industries, together with meals, oil and medication. The winning exploitation of those polysaccharides calls for a legitimate clinical knowing in their chemical and actual houses and likewise their biochemistry and biosynthesis.

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Extra resources for Biotechnology of Microbial Exopolysaccharides

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Aeruginosa material, they mainly have relatively low acetyl content. In the highly acetylated polysaccharides from either A. vinelandii or P. e. between 3 and 11 % of these residues carry acetylation on both carbon atoms. Emulsan and related polysaccharides Acinetobacter calcoaceticus is a capsulate Gram-negative bacterium, the exopolysaccharides from which are potent emulsifying agents. Structural Heteropolysaccharides 27 -•3>a-L-Rha-( 1 ^3)-a-D-Man-( 1 -*3 )-a-L-Rha-( 1 -»3 >a-L-Rha-( 1 -K3 )-p-D 2 \ 1 a-L-Rha-( 1 ->4>p-D-Glc A Fig.

The structural gene for the enzyme has also been cloned and expressed in Bacillus subtilis. The enzyme hydrolyses 1,4-a-D-glucosidic linkages in pullulan, yielding panose (O-a-D-glucopyranosyl-l,6-a-6>glucopyranosyl-l,4-D-glucopyranose). The mechanisms of action of these enzymes on their substrate are shown in Fig. 1. C. 3), the product from the nonreducing termini being glucose. a-D-Glc p-(l-»4>a-D- I a-D-Glc p-{ 1 -*4)-a-D-Glc p-( 1 -*4>a-D-Glc p I a-D-Glc p-(l-*4>a-D- a-D-Glc p-0~*4)-a-D-Glc p-(l->4>a-D-Glc p Fig.

Other polysaccharide lyases Apart from lyases active against microbial alginate and against hyaluronic acid, several other such enzymes have been recognised. Most have been obtained from bacteriophages. Two are endomannolyases, although they differ in their specificity for the polysaccharides of Klebsiella aerogenes serotype K5 and K64 respectively. A . . However, in the K5 exopolysaccharide, the D-glucosyl bond is 1,3; in K64 the linkages are 1,4 and a- respectively. The xanthan lyase already mentioned is also a mannolyase but fails to act on either of the Klebsiella aerogenes polysaccharides.

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