By Gloria Soberón-Chávez
Biosurfactants, tensio-active compounds produced by means of dwelling cells, at the moment are gaining expanding curiosity because of their strength purposes in lots of assorted commercial components within which to this point nearly solely man made surfactants were used. Their precise constructions and features are only transforming into liked. additionally, biosurfactants are thought of to be environmentally “friendly,” particularly non-toxic and biodegradable. This Microbiology Monographs quantity bargains with the newest advances within the box of microbial biosurfactants, equivalent to rhamnolipids, serrawettins, trehalolipids, mannosylerythritol lipids, sophorolipids, surfactin and different lipopeptides. each one bankruptcy experiences the features of a person biosurfactant together with the physicochemical houses, the chemical constructions, the function within the body structure of the manufacturing microbes, the biosynthetic pathways, the genetic law, and the aptitude biotechnological functions.
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Extra resources for Biosurfactants: From Genes to Applications (Microbiology Monographs, Vol. 20)
2005). Ritter and Luckner (1971) and Calfee et al. (2001) proposed a synthetic scheme for HAQs where anthranilate and b-ketodecanoic acid are condensed in a multistep reaction that would produce HHQ, followed by PQS after the release of a one carbon unit as CO2. This pathway has been verified using labeled substrates (Bredenbruch et al. 2005; De´ziel et al. 2004). These reactions are catalyzed by the pqsABCD and pqsH gene products (Dubern and Diggle 2008). Bredenbruch et al. (2005) suggested that the b-ketoacyl reductase RhlG plays a role, although an intact rhlG gene is not required for the production of HAQs.
Chlororaphis (Gunther et al. 2005), P. alcaligenes (Oliveira et al. 2009), and P. putida (Martinez-Toledo et al. 2006; Tuleva et al. 2002), and from the genus Burkholderia, they are B. glumae (Pajarron et al. 1993), B. plantarii (Andr€a et al. 2006), and B. thailandensis (Dubeau et al. 2009). Despite of the apparent safety advantage of these RL producers, very little is yet known about the biotechnological potential of these species. 5 Conclusion: Prospectives for the Industrial Production of Rhamnolipids We have gained a wealth of knowledge on rhamnolipidic surfactants of microbial origin.
Most RL-producing species belong to the closely related genera Pseudomonas and Burkholderia in the phylum proteobacteria (Walter et al. 2010). The genus Burkholderia arose from the genus Pseudomonas and was classified as a new genus in 1992 based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis (Yabuuchi et al. 1992). Consequently, bacteria of this genus have characteristics similar to Pseudomonas, and some species indeed produce RLs. B. glumae (formerly Pseudomonas glumae) (Pajarron et al. 1993), B. plantarii, (Andr€a et al.