Basic Concepts in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks by Masud Chaichian, Hugo Perez Rojas, Anca Tureanu

By Masud Chaichian, Hugo Perez Rojas, Anca Tureanu

"Basic ideas in Physics: From the Cosmos to Quarks" is the result of the authors' lengthy and sundry educating adventure in several international locations and for various audiences, and provides an available and eminently readable advent to all of the major principles of recent physics. The book’s clean strategy, utilizing a unique blend of old and conceptual viewpoints, makes it perfect complementary examining to extra ordinary textbooks. the 1st 5 chapters are dedicated to classical physics, from planetary movement to important relativity, constantly conserving in brain its relevance to questions of latest curiosity. the subsequent six chapters deal almost always with more recent advancements in physics, from quantum thought and basic relativity to grand unified theories, and the publication concludes by way of discussing the function of physics in dwelling platforms. A simple grounding in arithmetic is needed of the reader, yet technicalities are shunned so far as attainable; hence advanced calculations are passed over as long as the basic principles stay transparent. The booklet is addressed to undergraduate and graduate scholars in physics and also will be favored by means of many pro physicists. it's going to likewise be of curiosity to scholars, researchers and lecturers of different common sciences, in addition to to engineers, high-school academics and the curious basic reader, who will come to appreciate what physics is set and the way it describes the various phenomena of Nature. not just will readers of this publication examine a lot approximately physics, they are going to additionally discover ways to love it.

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An electron in an atom has some intrinsic angular momentum or spin that is retained even if it moves outside the atom, although it would not be correct to imagine the electron as a sphere that rotates around its axis. The spin angular momentum is measured in terms of a unit „ which is the Planck constant h divided by 2 , and whose value is 1:05 10 27 erg s. Electrons, protons, neutrons, neutrinos, and other particles have spin equal to 1/2 of this unit. Photons have spin equal to 1 and mesons have spin 0.

Since the neutron had a spin angular momentum equal to 1/2, the same as the proton and the electron, it was a mystery why the total spin of the resulting particles was not 1/2. Furthermore, the energy was not conserved either. Then, in 1931, Pauli proposed the existence of a neutral particle that carries the missing spin and energy. This particle was called the neutrino and was assumed to have spin 1/2. Although it took more than 20 years, the existence of the neutrino was finally demonstrated in the laboratory.

This change is represented by a vector p D Ft along the direction of the force exerted by the Sun on the planet (Fig. 17). Then at the point 2, the momentum of the planet becomes p C p. The process is reiterated at successive points so that the resulting trajectory is a curve. This is due to the action at each instant of the force F that causes the planet to “fall” continuously toward the Sun. As another example, assume that we let a stone fall freely, starting from a rest position: its initial velocity is zero, but because of the Earth’s gravitational attraction, it acquires a momentum p that increases proportionally with time, and points in the same direction as the force exerted by the Earth on the stone.

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