Bacillariophyceae 4 teil by Kurt Krammer, Horst Lange-Bertalot

By Kurt Krammer, Horst Lange-Bertalot

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One can then break down the process into its basic functional elements such as the reaction and separation sections. One could also identify recycle streams and additional unit operations in order to reach desired temperature and pressure conditions. These basic elements lead to a generic process block flow diagram, which can be drawn after estimates of process flows and material and heat balances are made. After preliminary equipment specifications, a process flow diagram is made. Finally, as the mechanical and instrumentation details are considered, the piping and instrumentation diagram is created.

Then the calculations can proceed sequentially. This is never ideal from the viewpoint of material and energy utilization. The introduction of recycle streams and heat exchangers creates more cyclic structures in a process flowsheet and makes it more difficult to determine an appropriate calculation sequence. 2 Analysis Synthesis & Design of Chemical Processes Three principal diagrams for a chemical process are the block flow diagram (BFD), process flow diagram (PFD) and the piping & instrumentation diagram, (P&ID).

Catalytic oxidation is also used for treatment of industrial exhausts containing halogenated compounds. As an exhaust control technology, catalytic oxidation enjoys some significant advantages over ther- mal oxidation. The former often occurs at temperatures that are less than half those required for the latter, consequently saving fuel and maintenance costs. Lower temperatures allow use of exhaust stream heat exchangers of a low grade stainless steel rather than the expensive high temperature alloy steels.

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