By Nassef Manabilang Adiong
The researcher is investigating at the perceptions of the 3 leaders in maneuvering and dashing up the laws of the arguable united states PATRIOT Act that once the notorious Sept. nine, 2001 occasion, this act used to be enacted in lower than one month and 13 days within the Senate and authorized (Oct. 26, 2001) by means of Pres. Bush instantly. the aim of this examine is to evaluate the schema of the 3 US leaders utilizing Operational Code research in the course of the Verbs In Context process approach to content material research in influencing the production of the stated legislations. it will additionally exhibit if the perceptions of the 3 US leaders are consonance with a undeniable development of political trust, which one way or the other impact the considering different leaders as manifested in developing anti-terrorism legislation world wide.
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Extra info for After 9/11: A Troika of Perceptions of President George Walker Bush, former Secretary of State Colin Luther Powell and former Secretary of Defense Donald Henry Rumsfeld on the Creation of the USA Patriot Act of 2001
Gotthold Lessing broadly adopted this viewpoint but with more sophisticated historical nuance. In his view, which adopted Leibniz’s distinction between the necessary truths of reason and the contingent truths of fact, the study of history can neither establish the absolute truth of a particular historical configuration nor act as a vehicle portraying the indubitable and suprahistorical truths of reason. Historical truths themselves can never be demonstrated because they depend on the testimony of others, whose reliability can be questioned, thus rendering the knowledge of historical occurrences a matter of degrees of probability.
Rational discourse is the anonymous discourse of a universal standpoint. Knowledge is a universal currency. 25 Reflexivity is where modernity’s inherent contrast with tradition stands out with bold clarity, for, as noted earlier, it denotes a way of disengaging from a lived situation and thinking about it from an objectivizing distance, without appeal to an authoritative past. While the reflexive monitoring of ideas and actions is present in tradition-oriented societies, it is largely focused on perpetuating the continuity of 28 THE BROKEN WHOLE past, present, and future in recurring practices that reinterpret and clarify cultural inheritances in a given location.
9 Here, Kant affirms a moment of critique that castigates, and severs itself from, those frameworks and institutions that restrict or subvert individual rational autonomy and thus distort the natural integrity of human experience. Enlightenment, then, is not just a cognitive affair, but the creation of social conditions that promote the self-determination of thought. Only free thinking can be critical thinking. This freedom-making standpoint of critique is what we might call a “first moment” in the Enlightenment project.